Excerpt from A Biographical Dictionary of Psychologists, Psychiatrists and Psychotherapists

ADLER, ALFRED (1870-1937) – INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY

Adler, an Austrian doctor and psychologist, who exerted a profound influence on psychiatry, was one of the neo-Freudians and the first to break with Freud. He resigned as president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1911 and formed a society that later became the Society for Individual Psychology.

Major Contributions

Adler established many child guidance centers in schools in Vienna, and is credited with being the pioneer psychiatrist of group counseling. He disagreed with Freud over the libido theory, the sexual origin of neurosis and the importance of infantile wishes. Individual psychology is a broad, socially-orientated, humanistic and holistic personality theory of psychology and psychotherapy. Adler's system is invested with a great deal of common sense, for it makes sense to the average reader. According to Adler, people are guided by values and goals of which they may be aware, not driven by unconscious instincts. Adler believed that the main motives of human thought and behaviour lie in the individual's striving for superiority and power, partly in compensation for feelings of inferiority. The individual moves from a sense of inferior to a sense of mastery. The individual cannot be considered apart from society, for all human problems – relationships, occupation and love – are social. Adler coined the term 'inferiority complex'. The neurotically disposed person is characterized by increased inferiority feelings, underdeveloped social interest and an exaggerated, uncooperative goal of superiority. These characteristics express themselves as anxiety and aggression.

Individual psychology emphasizes:

Adler's “masculine protest” describes the drive for superiority or completeness arising out of a felt inferiority or incompleteness, femininity being regarded as incomplete and inferior. Adler also developed a birth order theory; where children's position in their family – their birth order – was seen as determining significant character traits.

Adlerian therapy goals

Major Literature

Adler, Alfred. The Practice And Theory Of Individual Psychology. Totowa, New Jersey: Adams, Littlefield, 1924.
–––. Social Interest: A Challenge To Mankind. London, England: George Allen & Unwin, 1933.
–––. Understanding Human Nature, London, England: George Allen & Unwin, 1937.
–––. What Life Should Mean To You. New York: Capricorn Books, 1958.

BECK, AARON, T. (1921- ) – COGNITIVE THERAPY

Major Contributions

Trained as a psychoanalysis, Dr Beck designed and carried out a number of experiments to test psychoanalytic concepts of depression, but he was disappointed with the results. He found that helping patients identify their negative ideas about themselves, the world and the future, patients were able to think more realistically, which led them to feel better emotionally and behave more functionally. This led the development of Cognitive Therapy , which has been used in a wide range of disorders. Some of his most recent work has focused on cognitive therapy for schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and for patients who repeatedly attempt suicide. His cognitive therapy was based on the view that behavior is primarily determined by what that person thinks and that thoughts of low self-worth are incorrect and are due to faulty learning. Cognitive therapy is particularly relevant in treating depression, where thoughts of low self-worth and low self-esteem are a common feature. Beck has developed scales to assess anxiety, hopelessness, mania, self esteem, panic, dysfunctional attitudes, substance abuse, insight, obsessive compulsion, depression and suicide intent.

Major Literature

Beck, Aaron Temkin. Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972.
–––. Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press, 1976.
–––, Emery, G. Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Beck, Aaron Temkin. Cognitive Therapy: A 30 year retrospective. American Psychologist 46 (1991):368-375.
–––. Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence. New York: Harper Collins, Publishers, Inc., 2000.
–––, Gary Emery, Ruth L. Greenberg. Anxiety Disorders and Phobias: A Cognitive Perspective. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

HORNEY, KAREN CLEMENTINE DANIELSEN (1885-1952) – PERSONALITY DISORDERS

Major Contributions

Horney founded a neo-Freudian school of psychoanalysis based on the conclusion that neuroses are the result of emotional conflicts arising from childhood experiences and later disturbances in interpersonal relationships. She observed that the majority of her patients complained of unhappiness and lack of fulfillment in their lives, and the difficulty of establishing and maintaining relationships of quality. According to Horney, feelings of helplessness and despair drive us into making decisions that are not fulfilling and leave us feeling dissatisfied. Such feelings (formed early in childhood into defensive patterns) are self-perpetuating strategies against anxiety. Her views on the concept of repression brought her into conflict with the New York Psychoanalytic Institute, and forced her expulsion as an instructor. This led to her founding the American Psychoanalytic Institute in 1941. Contrary to traditional psychoanalytic theory of the day, Horney believed, that passivity was not restricted to women, but is determined by culture. She rejected the notion of penis envy and other manifestations of male bias in psychoanalytic theory. She also rejected the libido, the death instinct, and the Oedipus complex, which she considered could be more adequately explained by cultural and social conditions. Three strategies are available to the child in its search for safety:

  1. Compliant, self-effacing: Moving toward others, seeking affection approval - this 'moving toward' only emphasizes helplessness
  2. Aggressive, expansive: Moving against others and in so doing accepting a hostile environment
  3. Detached, resigned: Moving away from others and in so doing accepting the difficulty of relating to people at an intimate level.

Behavior, then, is influenced by whichever one of these strategies is found to bring the greatest rewards.

Major Literature

Horney, Karen. The Neurotic Personality Of Our Time. New York: W W Norton & Co Ltd, 1937, 1994.
–––. New Ways In Psychoanalysis. New York: W W Norton & Co Ltd, 1939, 2000.
–––. Self-Analysis. New York: W W Norton & Co Ltd, 1942, 1994.
–––. Our Inner Conflicts. New York: W W Norton & Co Ltd, 1945, 1993.
–––. Neurosis And Human Growth. New York: W W Norton & Co Ltd, 1950, 1991
–––.Feminine Psychology. New York: W W Norton & Co Ltd, 1967, 1994.

ARGYLE, JOHN MICHAEL (1925-2002) – BODY LANGUAGE

Major Contributions

Argyle opened up a whole new field of enquiry into non-verbal communication and social skills. His widely translated The Penguin Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour is reputed to be the best-selling psychology paperback, with sales probably exceeding half a million. He started the social psychology section of the British Psychological Society. The first major research area to benefit from his attentions was non-verbal communication. He subsequently constructed and tested a model of “social skills” and their operation. He and his colleagues applied their findings into training programs for the workplace and everyday living. The phrase “social skills” is now commonplace in everyday speech, and the issues have gained a central place in educational curricula, as well as employment and clinical psychology. The United States Library of Congress catalog lists 44 titles of books authored, co-authored, edited, or co-edited by Argyle, on a wide variety of topics, and most focus on the positives of human existence: co-operation, happiness, leisure, social interaction, social relationships and, for him, religious faith. At noon, on the third of June 2004, at County Hall, Exeter, England, a Lucombe Oak tree was planted in memory of Michael Argyle. A speech was given by Professor Jim Kennedy. Michael Argyle's widow was present together with two daughters and four grandchildren.

Major Literature

Argyle, Michael John. The Psychology Of Interpersonal Behavior. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1967.
–––. The Social Psychology Of Work. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1989.
–––. The Anatomy Of Relationships. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1990.
–––. The Social Psychology Of Everyday Life. Taylor and Francis Books Ltd, Routledge, 1992.
–––. The Psychology Of Social Class. Taylor and Francis Books Ltd, Routledge, 1993.
–––. The Social Psychology Of Leisure, London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996.
–––. The psychology of religious experience. Taylor and Francis Books Ltd, Routledge, 1997.
–––. The Psychology Of Money. Taylor and Francis Books Ltd, Routledge, 1998.
–––. Psychology And Religion. Taylor and Francis Books Ltd, Routledge, 1999.
–––. The Psychology Of Happiness. Taylor and Francis Books Ltd, Routledge, 2001.

BRIGGS MYERS, ISABEL, 1897-1979 – PERSONALITY TYPING

Isabel Briggs was the only daughter of Katherine and Lyman Briggs, an American scientist. Although Isabel had no formal psychological training, around the time of WW1 she became interested in the similarities and differences of human personality. When she became acquainted with the work of Carl Jung (see entry) she quickly adopted and expanded what he had done. Marrying Clarence Myers when she was young, Isabel, in addition to being a mother, published two mystery novels. WW2 gave her the impetus to continue developing what was to become the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, (MBTI) getting her subjects from school students or from any interested person, then later, medical and nursing students. Her work was not received warmly by the psychology fraternity, and her lack of any formal qualifications made the whole system suspect.. However, she persisted and with perseverance gained ground. Now the Indicator is accepted as a reliable personality measure for people who were not mentally ill.

The MBTI measures eight personality preferences along four dimensions:

  1. Extraversion (E) → Introversion (I). Extraversion/introversion describes the way we relate to the world around us.
  2. Sensing (S) → Intuition (N). Sensing/intuition describes the way we perceive the world.
  3. Thinking (T) → Feeling (F). Thinking/feeling describes the way we make judgments.
  4. Judgment (J) → Perception (P). Judgment/perception describes the way we make decisions.

There are sixteen types, made up from the dominant of each dimension.

The MBTI is used in a wide variety of different situations, and is a useful counseling tool, and which clients easily understand and can relate to.

A person's type is made up of the four dominant functions. Helping a client to understand his/her personality preferences is just one more way in which the client will gain insight into how to mange his/her life with less stress.

How personality preferences might influence counseling

Major Literature

Briggs Myers, Isabel. Gifts Differing, Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980. Mountain View, California: Davies-Black Publishing, U.S., 1995.
–––. Introduction to Type, Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980, 1998.
–––, McCaulley, M. H. Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1985.

FREUD, SIGMUND (1856-1939) – FOUNDER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS

Major Contributions

While working with patients under hypnosis (with Joseph Breuer), Freud observed that often there was improvement in the condition when the sources of the patients' ideas and impulses were brought into the conscious. Also, observing that patients talked freely while under hypnosis, he evolved his technique of free association. Noting that sometimes patients had difficulty in making free associations, he concluded that painful experiences were being repressed and held back from conscious awareness. Freud deduced that what was being repressed were disturbing sexual experiences – real or in fantasy, and that repressed sexual energy and its consequent anxiety finds an outlet in various symptoms that serve as ego defenses. His basic theory was that neuroses are rooted in suppressed sexual desires and sexual experiences in childhood. He maintained that many of the impulses forbidden or punished by parents are derived from innate instincts. Forbidding expression to these instincts merely drives them out of awareness into the unconscious. There they reside to affect dreams, slips of speech or mannerisms and may also manifest themselves in symptoms of mental illness. Freud's view – that the conscious and the unconscious are sharply divided and that access to the unconscious is denied except by psychoanalysis – does not meet with universal acceptance. Rather, many believe that there are various layers of awareness. In summary, Freud's view was that humans are driven by sex and aggression, the same basic instincts as animals. Society is in constant struggle against any expression of these. Psychoanalysis includes investigating mental processes not easily accessed by other means. It is a method of investigating and treating neurotic disorders and the scientific collection of psychological information. The main purpose of psychoanalysis is to make unconscious material conscious. Freud died of cancer in London.

Major Literature

Freud was a prolific writer. Over 300 article and books are listed on http://www.psychematters.com/bibliographies/freudbib.htm Some of them have been republished many times and the most comprehensive is still
Freud, S. (Ed. James Strachey ) Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 1953-1974. London, Hogarth Press, 1953-1974. New York: W W Norton & Co Ltd, 2000.

JUNG, CARL GUSTAV (1875-1961) – ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY

Major Contributions

Jung and Sigmund Freud became close working colleagues and Freud eventually came to regard Jung as the crown prince of psychoanalysis and his heir apparent. Partly for temperamental reasons and partly because of differences of viewpoint, the collaboration ended. Jung developed his own school, which he called Analytical Psychology.

Principal differences between Jung and Freud:

Jung developed a typology of personality: Extraversion/ Introversion; Thinking/Feeling; Sensing/Intuition. (See also Isabel Briggs Myers).

Other terms associated with Analytical Psychology:

The goals of Jungian therapy:

Major Literature

Jung was a voluminous writer and his works are available as C. G. Jung Collected Works, published by the Brunner-Routledge division of Taylor and Francis Books Ltd. London, England. A full list is available at http://www.psychematters.com/bibliographies/jungbib.htm

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